UVARs are measures that regulate vehicular access to urban infrastructure. Examples include congestion charging, low-emission zones (LEZ), and restrictions on certain types of vehicles.
A proliferation in the ways in which they are implemented has led to a fragmentation of UVAR schemes across Europe. With this comes the risk that possible benefits relating to economies of scale will be limited, whilst achieving Europe-wide compliance with UVAR standards also becomes more difficult.
To create a more common approach amongst cities and Member States to issues such as vehicle categories, enforcement, exemptions, pricing, and information provision, six non-binding guidance documents (NBGDs) have been composed. They form the core of the study.