LEV research

LEV Research

  • Alessio, H. M., Reiman, T., Kemper, B., Von Carlowitz, W., Bailer, A. J., & Timmerman, K. (2021). Metabolic and Cardiovascular Responses to a Simulated Commute on an E-Bike. Translational Journal of the ACSM, 6. 10.1249/TJX.0000000000000155.
  • Anderson, A., Adell, E., & Hiselius, L. W. (2021). What is the substitution effect of e-bikes? A randomised controlled trial. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 90. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trd.2020.102648
  • Astegiano, P., Tampere, C., Mayeres, I., & Himpe. (2017). Electric Cycling in Flanders: Empirical Research into the Functional Use of the e-Bike. KU Leuven. KU Leuven.
  • Berntsen, S., Malnes, L., Langaker, A., & Bere, E. (2017). Physical activity when riding an electric assisted bicycle. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 14, 55. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12966-017-0513-z
  • Bourne, J, E., Cooper, A, R., Kelly, P., Kinnear, F, J., England, C., Leary, S., & Page, A. (2020). The impact of e-cycling on travel behaviour: A scoping review. Journal of Transport & Health, 19. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jth.2020.100910
  • Deakin, N. L. (2021). Recognising the physical and social characteristics of urban cycling environments (PHD). Faculty of Social and Behavioural Sciences, University of Amsterdam. https://dare.uva.nl/search?identifier=0b2cb8ed-3d15-4b65-9c1f-2bbd61ba8be1
  • Hallberg, M., Rasmussen, T. K., & Rich, J. (2021). Modelling the impact of cycle superhighways and electric bicycles. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and practice, 149, pp. 397-418. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tra.2021.04.015
  • Hasnine, S., Dianat, A., & Nurul Habib, K. (2020). Investigating the factors affecting the distance travel and health conditions of e-bike users in Toronto. Transportation Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives, 8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trip.2020.100265
  • Fishman, E., & Cherry, C. (2015). E-bikes in the Mainstream: Reviewing a Decade of Research. Transport Reviews, 36(1), 1–20. https://doi.org/10.1080/01441647.2015.1069907
  • Fyhri, A., & Sundfør, H., B. (2020). Do people who buy e-bikes cycle more? Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 86. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trd.2020.102422
  • Kennisinstituut voor Mobiliteitsbeleid (KiM). (2019). Gebruik van e-fiets en effecten op andere vervoerwijzen.https://www.kimnet.nl/publicaties/rapporten/2019/12/02/gebruik-van-e-fiets-en-effecten-op-andere-vervoerwijzen
  • McQueen, M., MacArthur, J., & Cherry, C. (2020). The e-bike potential: estimating regional e-bike impacts on greenhouse gas emissions. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 87. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trd.2020.102482
  • Mitterwallner, V., Steinbauer, P. M., Besold, A., Dreitz, A., Karl, M., Wachsmuth, N., Zugler, V., & Audorff, V. (2021). Electrically assisted mountain biking: Riding faster, higher, farther in natural mountain systems. Journal of Outdoor Recreation and Tourism, 36. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jort.2021.100448
  • Salmerón-Manzano, E., & Manzano-Agugliaro, F. (2018). The Electric Bicycle: Worldwide Research Trends. Energies, 11,1894. https://doi.org/10.3390/en11071894
  • Ling, Z., Cherry,. MacArthur, J. H., & Weinert, X. J. (2017). Differences of Cycling Experiences and Perceptions between E-Bike and Bicycle Users in the United States. Sustainability, 9 (9). https://doi.org/10.3390/su9091662
  • Liu, Y., Ji, Y., Liu, Q., and He, M. (2017). “Investigating electric bicycles as a travel mode choice for escorting children to school.” Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Boardhttps://doi.org/10.3141/2634-02
  • Philips, I., Anable, J. and Chatterton, T. (2022). E-bikes and their capacity to reduce car CO2 emissions. Transport Policy. 116, 11-23. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tranpol.2021.11.019
  • Plazier, P. A., Weitkamp, G., & van den Berg, A. E. (2017). “Cycling was never so easy!” An analysis of e-bike commuters’ motives, travel behaviour and experiences using GPS-tracking and interviews. Journal of Transport Geography, 65, 25-34. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2017.09.017
  • Plazier, P. A., Weitkamp, G., & van den Berg, A. E. (2017). The potential for e-biking among the younger population: A study of Dutch students. Travel Behaviour and Society, 8, 37-45. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tbs.2017.04.007
  • Plazier, P., van den Berg, A. E., & Weitkamp, G. (2016). Commuting by e-bike: a mixed methods approach. RGS-IBG Conference, London, United Kingdom.
  • Stilo, L., Segura-Velandia, D., Lugo, H., Conway, P. P., & West, A. A. (2021). Electric bicycles, next generation low carbon transport systems: A survey. Transportation Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives, 10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trip.2021.100347
  • Tscharaktschiew, S., & Müller, S. (2021). Ride to the hills, ride to your school: Physical effort and mode choice. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 98. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trd.2021.102983.

  • Koossalapeerom, T., Satiennam, T., Satiennam, Leelapatra, W., Seedam, A., & Rakpukdee, T. (2019). Comparative study of real-world driving cycles, energy consumption, and CO2 emissions of electric and gasoline motorcycles driving in a congested urban corridor. Sustainable Cities and Society, 45. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scs.2018.12.031
  • Xuan, P. Y., Henz, M., & Weigl. (2013). Environmental impact of Converted Electrical Motorcycle. https://doi.org/10.1109/EVS.2013.6914813

  • Aldred, R., Woodcock, J., & Goodman, A. (2021). Major investment in active travel in Outer London: Impacts on travel behaviour, physical activity, and health. Journal of Transport & Health, 20. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jth.2020.100958
  • Alessio, H., Reiman, T., Kemper, B., Von Carlowitz, W., Bailer, A. J., & Timmerman, K. L. (2021). Metabolic and Cardiovascular Responses to a Simulated Commute on an E-Bike. Translational Journal of the ACSM: Spring 2021 – Volume 6 – Issue 2 – e000155.
  • Berntsen, S., Malnes, L., Langåker, A., & Bere, E. (2017). Physical activity when riding an electric assisted bicycle. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 14 (55). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12966-017-0513-z
  • Boele-Vos, M. J., Commandeur, J. J. F., & Twisk, D. A. M. (2017). Effect of physical effort on mental workload of cyclists in real traffic in relation to age and use of pedelecs. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2016.11.025
  • Bourne, J. E., Sauchelli, S., Perry, R., Page, A., Leary, S., England, C., & Cooper, R. A. (2018). Health benefits of electrically-assisted cycling: a systematic review. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 15(116). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12966-018-0751-8
  • Castro, A., Gaupp-Berghausen, M., Dons, E., Standaert, A., Laeremans, M., Clark, A,… Götschi, T. (2019). Physical activity of electric bicycle users compared to conventional bicycle users and non-cyclists: Insights based on health and transport data from an online survey in seven European cities. Transportation Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives, 1. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trip.2019.100017
  • Chang, F. et al. (2022). Crash injury severity of E-Bike Riders: A random parameters generalized ordered probit model with heterogeneity in means. Safety Science. 146. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2021.105545
  • Hall, C., Hoj, T. H., Clark, J., Geoff, W., Chaney, R. A., Crookston, B., & West, J. (2019). Pedal-Assist Mountain Bikes: A Pilot Study Comparison of the Exercise Response, Perceptions, and Beliefs of Experienced Mountain Bikers. JMIR Formative Research, 3 (3). 10.2196/13643
  • Höchsmann, C., Meister, S., Gehrig, D., Gordon, E., Li, Y., Nussbaumer, M., Rossmeissl, A., Schäfer, J., Hanssen, H., & Schmidt-Trucksäss, A. (2018). Effect of E-Bike Versus Bike Commuting on Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Overweight Adults: A 4-Week Randomized Pilot Study. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine, 28 (3), 255-265. https://doi.org/10.1097/JSM.0000000000000438
  • Kazemzadeh, K., & Koglin, T. (2021). Electric bike (non)users’ health and comfort concerns pre and peri a world pandemic (COVID-19): A qualitative study. Journal of Transport & Health, 20. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jth.2021.101014
  • Langford, B.C., Cherry, C., Bassett Jr, D., Fitzhugh, E., & Dhaka, N. (2017). Comparing physical activity of pedal-assist electric bikes with walking and conventional bicycles.  Journal of Transport, 6, 463-473, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jth.2017.06.002
  • Macharis, Tori, de Séjournet, Keseru & Vanhaverbeke (2021). Can the COVID-19 Crisis be a Catalyst for Transition to Sustainable Urban Mobility? Assessment of the Medium- and Longer-Term Impact of the COVID-19 Crisis on Mobility in Brussels. Frontiers in Sustainability. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/frsus.2021.725689/full
  • Stokols, D., Novaco, R. W., Stokols, J., & Campbell, J. (1978). Traffic congestion, Type A behavior, and stress. Journal of Applied Psychology, 63(4), 467–480. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.63.4.467
  • Peterman, J.E., Morris, K.L., Kram, R., & Byrnes, C. W. (2016). Pedelecs as a physically active transportation mode. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 116 (8), 1565-1573. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-016-3408-9
  • Sundfør, H. B., & Fyhri, A. (2017). A push for public health: the effect of e-bikes on physical activity levels. BMC Public Health, 17. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-017-4817-3.
  • Twisk, D. A. M., Platteel, S., & Lovegrove, G. R. (2017). An experiment on rider stability while mounting: Comparing middle-aged and elderly cyclists on pedelecs and conventional bicycles.  Accident Analysis & Prevention, 105, 109-116.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2017.01.004
  • Wild, K., Woodward, A., & Shaw, C. (2021). Gender and the E-bike: Exploring the Role of Electric Bikes in Increasing Women’s Access to Cycling and Physical Activity”, Active Travel Studies 1. https://doi.org/10.16997/ats.991
  • agiplan GmbH (2021). Micro Depots in the intermunicipal network using the example of the municipalities of Krefeld, Mönchengladbach. Industrie und Handelskammer Mittlerer Niederrhein. Handbook PDF document download. Part 2 Concept to Implementation PDF download.
  • Caggiani, L., Colovic, A., Prencipe, L, P., & Ottomanelli, M. (2021). A green logistics solution for last-mile deliveries considering e-vans and e-cargo bikes. Transportation Research Procedia, 52. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trpro.2021.01.010
  • Oliveira, C. M., Bandeira, R. A., Goes, G. V., Goncalves, D. N. S., & D’Agosto, M. (2017). Sustainable Vehicles-Based Alternatives in Last Mile Distribution of Urban Freight Transport: A Systematic Literature Review. Sustainability, 9(8), 1324. https://doi.org/10.3390/su9081324
  • Ploos van Amstel, W., Balm, S., Warmerdam, J., Boerema, M., Altenburg, M., Rieck, F., & Peters, T. (2018). City logistics: Light and electric: LEFV-logic: research on light electric freight vehicles. Faculty of Technology: Vol. 13. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University of Applied Sciences. https://www.dropbox.com/s/jtynb22ir25ygj9/lefv-logic.english.pdf?dl=0 .
  • Slob, A.W. (2021). Light electric vehicles in the Dutch mobility sector from an institutional logis perspective. Faculty of geosciences, Utrecht University. https://dspace.library.uu.nl/handle/1874/403181
  • Tsakalidis, A., Krause, J., Julea, A., Peduzzi, E., Pisoni, E., & Thiel, C. (2020). Electric light commercial vehicles: Are they the sleeping giant of electromobility? Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 86. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trd.2020.102421
  • Arsenio, E., Dias, J. V., Lopes, S. A., & Pereira, H. I. (2018). Assessing the market potential of electric bicycles and ICT for low carbon school travel: a case study in the Smart City of ÁGUEDA. European Transport Research Review, 10 (13). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12544-017-0279-z
  • Tunçel, N. (2021). Intention to purchase electric vehicles: Evidence from an emerging market. Research in Transportation Business & Management. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rtbm.2021.100764

  • Arias-Molinares, D., Julio, R., García-Palomares, J.C., and Gutiérrez, J. (2021). Exploring micromobility services: Characteristics of station-based bike-sharing users and their relationship with dockless services. Journal of Urban Mobility. 1. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.urbmob.2021.100010
  • Hensher, D. A., Mulley, C., & Nelson, J. D. (2021). Mobility as a service (MaaS) – Going somewhere or nowhere? Transport Policy, 111, pp. 153-156. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tranpol.2021.07.021.
  • Kennisinstituut voor Mobiliteitsbeleid. (2020). Kansrijke verplaatsingen met Mobility-as-a-Service. ISBN/EAN: 978-90-8902-240-0.
  • Labee, P., Rasouli, S., and Liao, F. (2022). The implications of Mobility as a Service for urban emissions. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 102. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trd.2021.103128.
  • Zhao, X., Vaddadi, B., Sjöman, M., Hesselgren, M., & Pernestal, A. (2020). Key barriers in MaaS development and implementation: Lessons learned from testing Corporate MaaS (CMaaS). Transportation Research Interdisciplinary Perspective, 8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trip.2020.100227
  • Zijlstra, T., Durand, A., Hoogendoorn-Lanser, S., & Harms, L. (2020). Early adopters of Mobility-as-a-Service in the Netherlands. Transport Policy, 97. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tranpol.2020.07.019
  • Active Travel Academy: brings together a broad spectrum of expertise to lead research with a focus on walking and cycling, use of other ‘micromobilities’ from e-scooters to electric hand cycles; and reduction in car use
  • FERSI: The Forum of European Road Safety Research Institutes
  • HVA: Amsterdam University of Applied Sciences Faculty of Technology
  • KU Leuven: ELECTA, this research division covers the broad spectrum of electrical energy systems and robust control of industrial systems
  • LEVER: The Light Electric Vehicle Education and Research (LEVER) Initiative
  • VUB Brussels: MOBI, the mobility, logistics and automotive technology research centre 
  • 6t-bureau de recherche, (2019), Marché et usages des speedelecs, Rapport final, 148 p. https://www.ademe.fr/sites/default/files/assets/documents/rapport-marche-usages-speedelec-charte-ademe-2020.pdf
  • Rotthier, B., Stevens G., Huyck B., Motoasca E., Cappelle J. (2017). The rise of the speed pedelec, restrained by legislation? EVS30-9860742. Presented at the EVS, Stuttgart, 09-11 Oct 2017
  • Stelling, A., Vlakveld, W., & Twisk, D. (2021). Influencing factors of observed speed and rule compliance of speed-pedelec riders in high volume cycling areas: Implications for safety and legislation. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 159. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2021.106239
  • Twisk, D., Stelling, A., Van Gent, P., De Groot, J., & Vlakveld, W. (2021). Speed characteristics of speed pedelecs, pedelecs and conventional bicycles in naturalistic urban and rural traffic conditions. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 150. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2020.105940
  • Van den Steen, N., Herteleer, B., Cappelle, J., & Vanhaverbeke, L. (2019). Motivations and barriers for using speed pedelecs for daily commuting. World Electr. Veh. J.2019, 10(4), 87. https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj10040087
  • Van der Salm, M. L. M. (2020). De speed pedelec: wie zijn de gebruikers? (master’s thesis)
  • Vlakveld, W., Mons, C., Kamphuis, K., Stelling, A., & Twisk, D. (2021). Traffic conflicts involving speed-pedelecs (fast electric bicycles): A naturalistic riding study. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 158. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2021.106201
  • Davies, H. C., & Bastien, C. (2021). An Approach for the Crash Safety Assessment of Smaller and Lightweight Vehicles. Transport Policy. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tranpol.2021.02.009
  • Raji, A., Devaraju, A., Gopi, R., & Venkatesh, R. (2021). Fabrication and mechanical characterization of hybrid composite bike safety helmet. Materialstoday: proceedings. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2020.11.433
  • Ramanathan, G., and Bharatiraja, C. (2021). Design of mono stage bridgeless converter for light electric vehicles charging. Materials Today: Proceedings. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2021.11.230.
  • Rodriquez-Rosa, D., Payo-Gutierrez, I., Castillo-Garcia, Gonzalez-Rodriquez, A., & Perez-Juarez, S. (2017). Improving Energy Efficiency of an Autonomous Bicycle with Adaptive Controller Design. Sustainability, 9(5). https://doi.org/10.3390/su9050866
  • Rotthier, B., Stevens G., Dikomitis L., Huyck B., Motoasca E., Cappelle J. (2017). Typical cruising speed of speed pedelecs and the link with motor power as a result of a Belgian naturalistic cycling study. (Paper No. 12). Presented at the International Cycling Safety Conference, Davis, USA, 20-Sep 2017 / 23-Sep 2017
  • Sivaraman, N., Vaidyanathan, R. M., Patel, M., Woldegiorgis, M. M., & Atiso, T. A. (2021). Performance evaluation of tricycle for differently abled people. Materialstoday: proceedings. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2020.12.963
  • Windisch-Kern, S., Gerold, E., Nigl, T. et al. (2022). Recycling chains for lithium-ion batteries: A critical examination of current challenges, opportunities and process dependencies. Waste Management, 138. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2021.11.038.

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