Tag Archive: batteries

  1. Research: Achieving Zero Emissions with More Mobility and Less Mining

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    Source: Climate + Community

    Electrified transportation demands lithium in record-high quantities, prompting expanded mining activities and environmental degradation. New research explores if it is possible to limit this sequence of events.

    A new report from T. Riofrancos, et al., in collaboration with the Climate + Community Project and the University of California, Davis explores the impact of increased lithium mining in relation to increased electric vehicle use.

    “A crucial aspect of electrified transportation is new demand for metals, and specifically the most non-replaceable metal for EV batteries – lithium. If today’s demand for EVs is projected to 2050, the lithium requirements of the US EV market alone in 2050 would require triple the amount of lithium currently produced for the entire global market. This boom in demand would be met by the expansion of mining. 

    “This report finds that the United States can achieve zero emissions transportation while limiting the amount of lithium mining necessary by reducing the car dependence of the transportation system, decreasing the size of electric vehicle batteries, and maximizing lithium recycling. Reordering the US transportation system through policy and spending shifts to prioritize public and active transit while reducing car dependency can also ensure transit equity, protect ecosystems, respect Indigenous rights, and meet the demands of global justice.”

    The recently released report is an incredible technical insight into one of the core arguments against the implementation of electrified transportation. Of course, it is encouraging to see LEVs, which contain significantly smaller batteries, cited as a key tool for combating the issue of high lithium demand. Access the full report, here.

  2. Greenway completes move into new Taizhou HQ

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    The LEVA-EU member, who produces battery packs for use in LEV projects, has moved into a new state-of-the-art headquarters.

    The new property, based in Taizhou, China, has a footprint of 23,000 square meters, with a total construction area of 100,000 square meters and a workshop area of approximately 64,000 square meters. Alongside existing key staff, the HQ will contain Greenways’ new R&D and Innovation centre, ensuring the company’s lithium-ion battery products are of the highest quality.

  3. Preliminary agreement on new EU Batteries Regulation

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    On 9 December, Council, Parliament and Commission have reached an agreement on the draft text for a new EU Regulation on Batteries. Although LEVA-EU has won a few battles, it is too early to claim victory yet.

    The new EU law will have a very considerable impact on batteries for light, electric vehicles (LEVs) and on the LEV-sector as a whole. The agreed compromise is not available yet and still needs official approval from Parliament and Council, but this is what we know so far:

    • Thanks in part to the work of LEVA-EU, the text holds a separate category for what is called batteries for light means of transport (LMT). With reservation, we quote the definition of that category as follows: “LMT battery means any battery that is sealed and weighs below or equal to 25 kg, designed to provide electric power for the traction to wheeled vehicles that can be powered by the electric motor alone or by a combination of motor and human power including type-approved vehicle of category L in the meaning of Regulation (EU) No 168/2013, and that is not an electric vehicle battery.
    • LEV-batteries of more than 25 kg will come under the category of electric vehicle batteries.
    • The law will have rates for the collection of end-of-life LMT-batteries. Partly thanks to LEVA-EU, this rate will be calculated based on batteries “available for collection” (AfC), rather than batteries “put on market“.
    • The new legislation will introduce extended and rigorous sustainability requirements. LEVA-EU has consistently and repeatedly protested these sustainability requirements for LMT-batteries. They would be imposed on LMT-batteries without the Commission having first conducted an impact assessment. Seemingly, the three authorities have agreed to maintain the 2 kW limit for some of these sustainability requirements. Until the compromise text is available, we are unable to determine for which requirements the limit has been retained.

    All in all, LEVA-EU’s position has been broadly observed. Let’s hope the devil will not be in the details. Next year, the text will be submitted to the Plenary of the European Parliament and to the 27 Member States for final approval.

  4. Tiler – inductive e-bike charging without intrusive infrastructure

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    Source: Cycling Industry News, M. Sutton

    LEVA-EU member Tiler showcases their e-bike charging unit at Move 2022, with industry interest for this novel charging solution continuing to grow

    For those unfamiliar, Tiler offers a new patented e-Bike charging infrastructure technology that relies simply on a kickstand and a tile built flush into the floor. The cable-free system utilizes inductive charging, with energy transfer taking place between the embedded infrastructure in the floor and a unique kickstand that is apparently compatible with around 80% of the market’s e-Bikes.

    This unique solution combats a growing issue within the LEV sphere – obtrusive charging infrastructure that removes valuable street space and may create a trip hazard. A single in-ground eBike charging tile measures 300mm x 500mm x 80mm, while the platform iteration comes in at 1748mm x 600mm and 94mm deep.

    Read the full write-up by Cycling Industry News here.

  5. Battery Experts Forum and Eurobike – parallel events create new synergies

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    A double power pack: The two leading events in the industries of battery technology and bike mobility are providing a unique opportunity for a cross-disciplinary transfer of knowledge and new contacts. The Battery Experts Forum, Europe’s largest conference on the subject of battery technology, is moving into the time slot from 12 to 14 July 2022 for its 17th edition and will be a direct neighbour of the leading trade fair Eurobike (13 to 17 July), also taking place at the Messe Frankfurt site.

    “The triumphant progress of the e-bike is closely linked with that of global battery technology. By coinciding with the prestigious Battery Experts Forum the new Eurobike will be promoting inspiration on both sides as it brings more international specialists into contact with each other and creates a greater momentum at the same place and same time,” points out fairnamic Managing Director Stefan Reisinger.

    The Battery Experts Forum, Europe’s largest conference for the battery industry, celebrated its premiere at the Frankfurt am Main exhibition site with a sell-out event in 2019. With the current expansion, the BMZ Group is responding to the high demand and has transformed the new location into a gathering for the battery technology industry as a whole over the three days. CEO and founder Sven Bauer explains: “In 2022 we are hoping for further growth of the Battery Experts Forum and are rapidly becoming the world’s largest battery conference. In conjunction with the parallel Eurobike show, we are creating new synergies and boosting exchange with other sectors of industry.” From 12 to 14 July (open daily from 9 am to 5 pm) the event with some 100 specialist talks on seven stages in the conference centre will additionally be occupying Hall 6 at the fair grounds and will expand its exhibition area to more than 10,000 m². The BMZ Group is expecting 160 exhibitors and around 5,000 participants from more than 50 nations. Further information is available at www.battery-experts-forum.com.

    The 30th edition of Eurobike runs from Wednesday 13 July, to Sunday 17 July 2022, from 09:00 to 18:00 each day. On Saturday and Sunday, it will be open to the general public. The leading trade fair is using the entire western section of the Messe Frankfurt site to create a perfect circuit covering more than 100,000 m² of hall space that will showcase the bicycle in all its many facets. Included in this tour are Halls 8 and 9 as well as the new Halls 11 and 12, both of which have two levels. More than 1,400 exhibitors and some 100,000 participants are expected from all over the world. For more information, please visit: www.eurobike.com.

  6. Greenway Technology and LG Energy form long-term cell supply cooperation

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    In the final quarter of 2021, Guangdong Greenway Technology Co., Ltd (Greenway Technology), a leading manufacturer of lithium-ion batteries for micro-mobility and energy storage applications, signed a contract with LG Energy Solution, Ltd. (LG Energy) to invest in a new production line for battery cells from LG Energy in Nanjing.

    Shenzhen, October 2021, General Manager John Zeng from Greenway Technology and Ray Kim from LG Chem China Investment Co.,Ltd. after signing the new cell supply cooperation.

    LG Energy, one of the world market leaders in battery products and energy solutions, guarantees Greenway Technology deliveries of lithium-ion cells of automotive quality with price advantages from 2023 to 2028. With this agreement, Greenway Technology continues to expand into the growing market of light electromobility.

    This strategic supply agreement will help Greenway Technology achieve its margin and cost targets to provide attractive battery systems to the electric bike, motorcycle, and energy storage markets. Greenway Technology focuses on products of high quality, making LG Energy the ideal partner due to its many years of experience as a cell manufacturer.

    The subject of this long-term partnership is 21700 cylindrical NMC cells with 5000mAh of the latest generation, an excellent fit for application in light electric vehicles (LEVs) such as pedelecs, e-bikes, and e-scooters.

    “Greenway Technology is proud to enter into a new stage of collaboration with LG Energy,” said John Zeng, General Manager of Greenway Technology. “We build on our strong relationship with LG Energy to supply the market with the best quality products to provide sustainable and safe energy solutions for the world’s big challenges in mobility and emission.”

    Greenway Technology is one of the market leaders developing and manufacturing innovative lithium-ion battery systems for the micro-mobility industry, drive system suppliers, and vehicle manufacturers in Europe and Asia.

    LG Energy was established in 2020, as a subsidiary of LG Chem. According to SNE Research, LG Energy is the world’s second-largest supplier of EV batteries, with a market share of 23.7% in 2021. LG Energy sets a strong focus on industry-leading performance cells for electric mobility vehicle producers, and is currently a cell supplier for Tesla.

  7. Like LEVA-EU, JRC advocates new, separate battery category for Light Electric Vehicles

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    JRC has completed its study for the European Commission on alternative collection targets for Light Means of Transport (LMT) batteries. JRC concludes that the best way forward is to introduce a new separate category for LMT batteries. That is exactly the solution, which LEVA-EU has been advocating since the Commission has published the new battery Regulation proposal. The JRC report is therefore a major boost for LEVA-EU’s lobby campaign towards the European Parliament and Council.

    In its original proposal, the European Commission suggested to include batteries for so-called Light Means of Transport (LMT) in the portable battery category. The proposal defined LMT-batteries as sealed, up to 5 kg and for use in vehicles with a seat and a motor of no more than 750 Watts. All other batteries, such as those in electric scooters, mobility scooters, e-mopeds, e-motorcycles and other electric vehicles in the L-category would be categorized as electric vehicle batteries.

    Hugely problematic proposal

    LEVA-EU immediately pointed out to the Commission that this definition would create huge problems for light, electric vehicles (LEVs). The main issue is the fact that the electric vehicle battery category is subject to information and sustainability requirements, which are simply not feasible for LEV-manufacturers. Another issue was the requirement for a seat, pushing all e-scooters into the electric vehicle battery category. Also, the limit of 750 Watts was meaningless because the meaning of Watts remained unspecified.

    On top of these issues, the Commission was also confronted with questions from the Member States on the effect of the proposal on LMT. The Commission acknowledged the issues and asked the Joint Research Centre (JRC) for research into how to set a collection target for LMT batteries. JRC is the Commission’s science and knowledge service, which employs scientists to carry out research in order to provide independent scientific advice and support to EU policy.

    Unknown and uninteded consequence

    In its research and through consultation with stakeholders, among which LEVA-EU, JRC easily established that the definition of LMT batteries as proposed by the Commission was flawed. The definition was found to be “troublesome in its reference to motors ‘of less than 750 watts’. It is found to be problematic in referencing to ‘on which travellers are seated’ with a significant amount of smaller LMT products without a seat. Both types of parameters effectively discriminate between products with comparable battery characteristics.

    However, there were deeper issues with the Commission’s proposal to classify LMT-batteries as portable batteries. The proposal holds collection targets for portable batteries based on the so-called Put on Market (PoM) parameter. The JRC-study was exactly meant to determine whether that method and the targets set for portable batteries could be simply extended to LMT-batteries or whether alternative collection methods and targets for LMT-batteries were needed.  In its research on collection targets for LMT batteries, JRC stumbled upon an “unknown and unintended consequence of the originally proposed target basis”.  JRC’s conclusion on the proposed PoM-method and resulting targets for LMT-batteries was: “(…) due to increasing sales of rechargeable and LMT batteries, plus potentially more durable primary batteries as well, there will be a growing discrepancy between the placed on the market (POM) volumes and the waste volume becoming available later. This means that the currently proposed POM based collection target, based on 3 preceding years of sales, will not be ‘steadily ambitious’, but relatively more challenging for the years 2025 and 2030 when the newer target levels are respectively set at 65% and 70%. Reversely, in later years it will become less challenging.

    Growing discrepancy

    The following example illustrates JRC’s findings. According to some prognoses, European electric bike sales could reach 17 million in 2030. In that year, the PoM collection rate will go to 70% based on the 3 preceding years. Hypothetical sales of 13.25 million in 2027, 14.5 million in 2028 and 15.75 million in 2029 would result in 10.15 million e-bike batteries targeted for collection in 2030. Let’s assume an average lifetime for e-bike batteries of 6 years. That means that the batteries becoming available for collection will effectively be put on the market in 2024. Sales in 2020 were estimated at 4.5 million. It is therefore totally unlikely that in 2024 sufficient sales will be achieved to reach a collection target of 10.15 million batteries in 2030. Even if sales reach 10 million in 2024, it is impossible for 100% of those  batteries to make it to the collection points.

    To overcome this problem, JRC proposes what it calls a “future-proof solution”. That includes the creation of a separate LMT battery category, next to industrial, automotive, electric vehicle and portable battery categories. Secondly, the basis for the collection target for this new category should be changed from Put on Market (PoM) to Available for Collection (AfC).

    All batteries from non-type-approved light, electric vehicles as well as from L1 to L7 vehicles would come under the new category. This proposal is almost fully in line with what LEVA-EU has asked for from the start. Nevertheless, JRC proposes to include all LEV-batteries but only up to 25 kg. It is unclear how JRC has determined this 25 kg limit, which would still send heavier L-category vehicle batteries, for instance on motorcycles, tricycles or quadrimobiles into the electric vehicle battery category.


    JRC quotes several benefits in creating a separate LMT battery category. First of all, it would allow the inclusion of heavier batteries, “that would otherwise not fit in the collection infrastructure for portable batteries.” Secondly, JRC states that 70% of AfC by 2025 and 75% by 2030 will be a much more realistic target for LMT waste batteries. Changing to AfC will require a revision clause in the Commission’s proposal to adapt the common methodology parameters and potentially also the target level specifically for the new category. LEVA-EU believes that the AfC calculation methodology must be adapted to the lifespan of the various vehicles in the category. The lifespan of an e-scooter for instance is different from the lifespan of an electric bike. It will also require specific consideration for batteries which are not returned through this collection infrastructure. There will undoubtedly be some hoarding to be taken into account, as well as batteries which will be treated for re-use for instance. Furthermore, all vehicles excluded from the L-category are subject to the WEEE-Directive. It is quite likely that some batteries will not be removed from end-of-life vehicles.

    Another benefit of JRC’s proposal is that the creation of a separate LMT battery category will allow for faster introduction of more collection points and will improve the handling and the safety attention for end-of-life batteries. And last but not least, JRC points out that the creation of a separate LMT category offers an additional possibility to adapt other than collection requirements, such as sustainability, safety and information requirements, “to the distinctive character of LMT batteries.” In doing so, JRC agrees with LEVA-EU’s request not to simply subject LEV batteries to the particularly extensive and strict requirements for electric vehicle batteries. Instead, the EU institutions should consult with the LEV-sector as to appropriate and adequate requirements. Ideally, the Commission should order new research into such requirements.

    Confusion in Parliament

    In the meantime, even before this JRC report was published, 3 parliamentary committees had started working on the original Commission proposal. Normally, only 1 parliamentary committee is responsible for a file. In this case, the work was entrusted to IMCO, ITRE and ENVI while TRAN was allowed to issue an opinion. Since, the IMCO and TRAN Rapporteurs and the ITRE committee have effectively proposed amendments. As a result, a particularly confusing situation has now arisen for LMT batteries, with diverging amendments for the same articles in the proposal. LEVA-EU will resume lobbying after the summer break to try to align all relevant parliamentary committees with JRC’s recommendations for LMT batteries.

  8. LEVA-EU wants dedicated light electric vehicle battery category

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    Last week, LEVA-EU has organized two online meetings, in which the trade association has informed LEV-businesses on the new battery proposal. The meetings, open to both members and non-members, were aimed at gathering support for the amendments LEVA-EU is to present to the European Parliament and the Council.

    The Commission’s proposal to the European Parliament and Council for new battery legislation is no less than an existential threat to most companies in the Light Electric Vehicle (LEV)-sector.

    The Commission does propose reasonable measures for batteries in light means of transport. Unfortunately, the Commission’s definition of light means of transport is such that it would only categorize batteries in certain electric cycles as portable batteries subject to reasonable requirements. Only sealed batteries up to 5 kg to be used in vehicles with a seat and a motor of no more than 750 watts (sic) come under the category of portable batteries. All other batteries, i.e. in electric scooters, mobility scooters, e-mopeds, e-motorcycles and other electric vehicles in the L-category would be categorized as electric vehicle batteries.

    Electric vehicle batteries are to become subject to very extensive and complicated sustainability requirements supplemented with heavy-duty administration. It is simply impossible for LEV-battery producers to comply with electric vehicle battery regulations. It is also very debatable whether these requirements are necessary and adequate for LEV-batteries.

    Furthermore, in most cases the responsibilities will not fall on the company that effectively makes the battery, but on the company that first puts the battery on the market in an EU Member State, i.e. the vehicle producer or importer. Under electric vehicle battery rules, that producer will be charged with duties beyond his competence.

    LEVA-EU has found the Commission prepared to reconsider this proposal for batteries for light means of transport. Unfortunately, the proposal is already with the European Parliament and Council. LEVA-EU therefore needs the support of LEV-companies in its campaign for a battery proposal that will not destroy any LEV-companies. Gathering that support was the objective of last week’s information meetings.

    LEVA-EU proposes not to categorise LEV-batteries as portable nor as electric vehicle batteries. Instead, the association proposes to create a 4th, new category specifically for LEV-batteries. The category can be very easily defined by linking it to the L-category in technical legislation. Consequently, all batteries in vehicles in the L-category, but also all vehicle excluded from the L-category under Article 2.2 of Regulation 168/2013, could be categorised as LEV-batteries. As a result, a dedicated collection scheme can be organized and accurate targets may be set upon specific research. LEVA-EU believes it is important to have collection separate from portable batteries, because due to specific hazards, LEV-batteries are subject to UN-rules for transport.

    The Commission does however insist on additional sustainability requirements for the heavier batteries in the L-category, starting from L3 to L7. LEVA-EU’s proposal is not to impose such requirements immediately but to research what is necessary and feasible and to consult with LEV-businesses on this.

    In the meantime, LEVA-EU has initiated in talks with Members of the European Parliament. The association can obviously rely on support from its members for this work but welcomes any additional support from companies that are not members (yet). In the next few weeks, LEVA-EU is going to translate its proposal in concrete amendments that will be presented to the European Parliament and the Council.

    To find out more about this issue or to pledge your support for the LEVA-EU campaign, contact Annick Roetynck, tel. +32 9 233 60 05, email annick@leva-eu.com.

  9. Commission proposes to modernise EU legislation on batteries

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    Today, the European Commission proposes to modernise EU legislation on batteries, delivering its first initiative among the actions announced in the new Circular Economy Action Plan. Batteries that are more sustainable throughout their life cycle are key for the goals of the European Green Deal and contribute to the zero pollution ambition set in it. They promote competitive sustainability and are necessary for green transport, clean energy and to achieve climate neutrality by 2050. The proposal addresses the social, economic and environmental issues related to all types of batteries.

    In a first reaction, LEVA-EU Partner Recharge welcomes the proposal as “a meaningful legislative framework that will close the gap in existing legislation and can level the playing field with international actors“. However, the battery trade association also issues a stark warning: “In today’s proposal we see a high level of complexity and fear that this will translate into over-regulating fast-paced, innovative industries such as batteries or electric mobility. Closing the gap with international competition will depend on long-term investments and a coherent regulatory framework.”

    LEVA-EU is currently analyzing the Commission’s proposal and will consult with its members on an accurate response for the benefit of the LEV-sector. For more information, please contact Annick Roetynck, +32 9 233 60 05, annick@leva-eu.com

    The Commission’s proposal is here, the annexes to the proposal here.
    The EU press release on the proposal is here
    Recharge’s initial response is here.

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