LEVA Europe
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Light Electric Vehicle Research

Please send us, at [email protected], a reference to your research into Light Electric Vehicles or a reference to any research you deem relevant.

Please also visit LEVER: The Light Electric Vehicle Education and Research (LEVER) Initiative is a consortium of Light Electric Vehicle (LEV) researchers and educators that currently includes faculty and staff from University of Tennessee.

Articles and Books:

Arnold, F., Cardenas, I., Sörensen, K., & Dewulf, W. (2018, revised). Simulation of B2C e-commerce distribution in Antwerp using cargo bikes and delivery points. European Transport Research Review, 10:2. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12544-017-0272-6

Arsenio, E., Dias, J. V., Lopes, S. A., & Pereira, H. I. (2018). Assessing the market potential of electric bicycles and ICT for low carbon school travel: a case study in the Smart City of ÁGUEDA. European Transport Research Review, 10 (13). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12544-017-0279-z

Assmann, T., & Behrendt, F. (2017). Determining optimal container heights for cargobike crossdocking schemes in urban areas. Conference: 10th International Doctoral Students Workshop on Logistics, At Magdeburg, Germany

Berntsen, S., Malnes, L., Langåker, A., & Bere, E. (2017). Physical activity when riding an electric assisted bicycle. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 14 (55). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12966-017-0513-z

Boele-Vos, M. J., Commandeur, J. J. F., & Twisk, D. A. M. (2017). Effect of physical effort on mental workload of cyclists in real traffic in relation to age and use of pedelecs. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2016.11.025

Bourne, J. E., Sauchelli, S., Perry, R., Page, A., Leary, S., England, C., & Cooper, R. A. (2018). Health benefits of electrically-assisted cycling: a systematic review. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 15 (116). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12966-018-0751-8

Bulsink, V. E. (2017). Bicycling stability: simulations & experiments to improve cycling safety for older cyclists. Enschede: University of Twente. https://doi.org/10.3990/1.9789036544436

Castro, A., Gaupp-Berghausen, M., Dons, E., Standaert, A., Laeremans, M., Clark, A,… Götschi, T. (2019). Physical activity of electric bicycle users compared to conventional bicycle users and non-cyclists: Insights based on health and transport data from an online survey in seven European cities. Transportation Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives, 1. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trip.2019.100017

Ewert, A. (2018). Prospects for Small Electric Vehicles (SEV) in the transition of Urban Mobility Concepts. Conference paper: Avere E-mobility conference by German Aerospace Center (DLR)

Hall, C., Hoj, T. H., Clark, J., Geoff, W., Chaney, R. A., Crookston, B., & West, J. (2019). Pedal-Assist Mountain Bikes: A Pilot Study Comparison of the Exercise Response, Perceptions, and Beliefs of Experienced Mountain Bikers. JMIR Formative Research, 3 (3).   doi: 10.2196/13643

Hertach, P., Uhr, A., Niemann, S., & Cavegn, M. (2018). Characteristics of single-vehicle crashes with e-bikes in Switzerland. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 117, 232-238. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2018.04.021

Höchsmann, C., Meister, S., Gehrig, D., Gordon, E., Li, Y., Nussbaumer, M., Rossmeissl, A., Schäfer, J., Hanssen, H., & Schmidt-Trucksäss, A. (2018). Effect of E-Bike Versus Bike Commuting on Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Overweight Adults: A 4-Week Randomized Pilot Study. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine, 28 (3), 255-265. https://doi.org/10.1097/JSM.0000000000000438

Hofmann, W., Assmann, T., Neghabadi, P. D., Cung, V.D., & Tolujevs.  (2017). A Simulation Tool to Assess the Integration of Cargo Bikes into an Urban Distribution System. Conference: The 5th International Workshop on Simulation for Energy, Sustainable Development & Environment, At Barcelona, Spain. https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01875988

Ianto, G., TRL, (2019). Study on the assistance factor (auxiliary propulsion power and actual pedal power) for cycles designed to pedal of vehicle sub-category L1e-B. Ref. Ares(2019)5349536 – 22/08/2019. doi:10.2873/085443, https://bit.ly/390P7FI

Kennisinstituut voor Mobiliteitsbeleid (KiM). (2019). Gebruik van e-fiets en effecten op andere vervoerwijzen. https://www.kimnet.nl/publicaties/rapporten/2019/12/02/gebruik-van-e-fiets-en-effecten-op-andere-vervoerwijzen

Landesinstitut Für Arbeitsgestaltung. Good vibrations? Unterschätztes Risiko von Vibrationen bei Lastenpedelecs. Retrieved from https://www.lia.nrw.de/service/publikationen-downloads/LIA_fakten/index.html

Langford, B.C., Cherry, C., Bassett Jr, D., Fitzhugh, E., & Dhaka, N. (2017). Comparing physical activity of pedal-assist electric bikes with walking and conventional bicycles.  Journal of Transport, 6, 463-473, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jth.2017.06.002

Ling, Z., Cherry,. MacArthur, J. H., & Weinert, X. J. (2017). Differences of Cycling Experiences and Perceptions between E-Bike and Bicycle Users in the United States. Sustainability, 9 (9). https://doi.org/10.3390/su9091662

Li, W., & Kamargianni, M. (2017). Air Pollution and Seasonality Effects on Mode Choice in China. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board. https://doi.org/10.3141/2634-15

Liu, Y., Ji, Y., Liu, Q., and He, M. (2017). “Investigating electric bicycles as a travel mode choice for escorting children to school.” Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board. https://doi.org/10.3141/2634-02

Melo, S., & Baptista, P. (2017). Evaluating the impacts of using cargo cycles on urban logistics:integrating traffic, environmental and operational boundaries. European Transport Research Review, 9 (30). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12544-017-0246-8

Moreau, H.,  de Jamblinne de Meux, L., Zeller, V., D’Ans, P., Ruwet, R.,  Achten, W.M.J. (2020). Dockless E-Scooter: A Green Solution for Mobility? Comparative Case Study between Dockless E-Scooters, Displaced Transport, and Personal E-Scooters. Sustainability 2020, 12(5), 1803. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12051803

Oliveira, C. M., Bandeira, R. A., Goes, G. V., Goncalves, D. N. S., & D’Agosto, M. (2017). Sustainable Vehicles-Based Alternatives in Last Mile Distribution of Urban Freight Transport: A Systematic Literature Review. Sustainability, 9 (8), 1324. https://doi.org/10.3390/su9081324

Peterman, J.E., Morris, K.L., Kram, R., & Byrnes, C. W. (2016). Pedelecs as a physically active transportation mode. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 116 (8), 1565-1573. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-016-3408-9

Plazier, P., van den Berg, A. E., & Weitkamp, G. (2016). Commuting by e-bike: a mixed methods approach. RGS-IBG Conference, London, United Kingdom.

Plazier, P. A., Weitkamp, G., & van den Berg, A. E. (2017). “Cycling was never so easy!” An analysis of e-bike commuters’ motives, travel behaviour and experiences using GPS-tracking and interviews. Journal of Transport Geography, 65, 25-34. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2017.09.017

Plazier, P. A., Weitkamp, G., & van den Berg, A. E. (2017). The potential for e-biking among the younger population: A study of Dutch students. Travel Behaviour and Society, 8, 37-45. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tbs.2017.04.007

Ploos van Amstel, W., Balm, S., Warmerdam, J., Boerema, M., Altenburg, M., Rieck, F., & Peters, T. (2018). City logistics: Light and electric: LEFV-logic: research on light electric freight vehicles. Faculty of Technology: Vol. 13. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University of Applied Sciences.

Ploos van Amstel, W., Balm, S., Warmerdam, J., Boerema, M., Altenburg, M., Rieck, F., & Peters, T. (2018). Stadslogistiek: licht en elektrisch: LEVV-LOGIC: onderzoek naar lichte elektrische vrachtvoertuigen. (Publicatiereeks HvA Faculteit Techniek; Vol. 13). Amsterdam: Hogeschool van Amsterdam.

Rodriquez-Rosa, D., Payo-Gutierrez, I., Castillo-Garcia, Gonzalez-Rodriquez, A., & Perez-Juarez, S. (2017). Improving Energy Efficiency of an Autonomous Bicycle with Adaptive Controller Design. Sustainability, 9 (5). https://doi.org/10.3390/su9050866

Rotthier, B., Stevens G., Dikomitis L., Huyck B., Motoasca E., Cappelle J. (2017). Typical cruising speed of speed pedelecs and the link with motor power as a result of a Belgian naturalistic cycling study. (Paper No. 12). Presented at the International Cycling Safety Conference, Davis, USA, 20 Sep 2017-23 Sep 2017.

Rotthier, B., Stevens G., Huyck B., Motoasca E., Cappelle J. (2017). The rise of the speed pedelec, restrained by legislation?. (Paper No. EVS30-9860742). Presented at the EVS, Stuttgart, 09 Oct 2017-11 Oct 2017

Salmerón-Manzano, E., & Manzano-Agugliaro, F. (2018). The Electric Bicycle: Worldwide Research Trends. Energies, 11, 1894. https://doi.org/10.3390/en11071894

6t-bureau de recherche, (2019), Marché et usages des speedelecs, Rapport final, 148 p. https://www.ademe.fr/sites/default/files/assets/documents/rapport-marche-usages-speedelec-charte-ademe-2020.pdf

Sundfør, H. B., & Fyhri, A. (2017). A push for public health: the effect of e-bikes on physical activity levels. BMC Public Health, 17. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-017-4817-3

Twisk, D. A. M., Platteel, S., & Lovegrove, G. R. (2017). An experiment on rider stability while mounting: Comparing middle-aged and elderly cyclists on pedelecs and conventional bicycles.  Accident Analysis & Prevention, 105, 109-116.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2017.01.004

Van den Steen, N., Herteleer, B., Cappelle, J., & Vanhaverbeke, L. (2019). Motivations and barriers for using speed pedelecs for daily commuting. World Electr. Veh. J. 2019, 10(4), 87. https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj10040087

Venturini, G., Karlsson, K., & Münster, M. (2019). Impact and effectiveness of transport policy measures for a renewable-based energy system. Energy Policy, 133. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2019.110900

Wang, W., Bengler, K., & Jiang, X. (Eds.). (2018). Green Intelligent Transportation Systems. Singapore: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-3551-7

Xuan, P. Y., Henz, M., & Weigl. (2013). Environmental impact of Converted Electrical Motorcycle. https://doi.org/10.1109/EVS.2013.6914813

Zuev, D. (2018). Urban Mobility in Modern China: the growth of the E-bike. London, UK: Palgrave Macmillan Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-76590-7


Bailey, S. Aeronautical & Automotive Department, Lougborough University. Low Energy Vehicles for Sustainable Future Transport

Balm, S., Herwijnen, A., & Gozems, N. (2016). Amsterdam University of Applied Sciences. Cycle Logistics Industry Survey 2016

Bebat. E-mobility rapport (Dutch). https://ebooks.bebat.be/ebook/2/nl#main-compliance


Annick Roetynck

Annick is the Manager of LEVA-EU, with decades of experience in two-wheeled and light electric mobility.


For clear and current information on Light Electric Vehicles.

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